Wednesday, September 26, 2012

A spinal nerve with its anterior and posterior roots.


  • A spinal nerve with its anterior and posterior roots.


  • Nerve compression hypothesis: suggests that when the vertebrae are out of alignment, the nerve roots and/or spinal cord can become pinched or irritated. While the most commonly referenced hypothesis, and easiest for a patient to understand, it may be the least likely to occur.
  • Proprioceptive insult hypothesis: focuses on articular alterations causing hyperactivity of the sensory nerve fibers.
  • Somatosympathetic reflex hypothesis: all the visceral organ functions can be reflexly affected by cutaneous or muscular stimulation.
  • Somatosomatic reflex hypothesis: afferent impulses from one part of the body can result in reflex activity in other parts of the body.
  • Viscerosomatic reflex hypothesis: visceral afferent fibers cause reflex somatic problems.
  • Somatopsychic hypothesis: the effects of a subluxation on the ascending paths of the reticular activating system.
  • Neurodystrophic hypothesis: focuses on lowered tissue resistance that results from abnormal innervation.
  • Dentate ligament-cord distortion hypothesis: upper cervical misalignments can cause the dentate ligaments to put a stress on the spinal cord.
  • Psychogenic hypothesis: emotions, such as stress, causing contraction in skeletal muscles.
The vertebral subluxation has been described as a syndrome with signs and symptoms which include: altered alignment; aberrant motion; palpable soft tissue changes; localized/referred pain; muscle contraction or imbalance; altered physiological function; reversible with adjustment/manipulation; focal tenderness.